Measurement and signature intelligence

The intelligence of measurements and signatures (MASINT), as part of the technical branch of data collection, serves to detect, track, identify or describe distinctive characteristics (in other words, signatures), both static, fixed targets, and constantly moving ones. This sub-division includes such areas of data collection as radar reconnaissance, acoustic surveillance, nuclear reconnaissance, and chemical and biological reconnaissance. Thus, MASINT becomes an advanced scientific and technical intelligence based on the analysis of data collected from sensors to identify particular features of the source, sender, or emitter of data for subsequent identification.

Analyzing the definition itself, let's say that the measurement refers to the metric parameters of the targets. The signature is responsible for the distinctive features of the equipment or object as a transmitter of information to the device in the data collection process.

The MASINT measurement looks for differences or anomalies from the set parameters of norms, defining deviation from the standard as a new phenomenon for fixation and study. So, if the target starts vibrating, heats up or cools down, leaving a trace, or produces any sound, it goes a signature. So any change in the state of the target, which is read by sensors, becomes an element of the database about this target. At the same time, the database can be replenished not only by intentional changes or actions of the target as an object of study, but the MASINT measuring instrument also allows reading the by-products of the target radiation, the so-called "traces" - radiation of the spectral, chemical, radio frequency field. These "traces" form other distinctive signatures for each object, making it possible to identify it based on the data obtained, to reveal specific events, and to identify specific goals.

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- Electro-optical Intelligence

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Detector analysis

Sensor analysis

Laser analysis

Spectral analysis

Hyperspectral analysis

- Nuclear Intelligence

The nuclear direction of intelligence covers the measurement and characterization of all information related to atomic radiation and phenomena related to nuclear reactors, processes, materials, and devices up to nuclear weapons. Monitoring of all events in the nuclear field can be done remotely or during on-site inspections of nuclear facilities. The use of data leads to the determination of the characteristics of reactors and materials.

Dosimetry analysis

Space-based nuclear energy detection

Ionizing radiation detection

- Geophysical Intelligence

The geophysical direction of exploration includes the study of measurements and signatures of phenomena transmitted through the earth and artificial structures (received and radiated sounds, vibrations, waves, and pressure changes. The use of geophysical sensors is quite widely known for both commercial and defense purposes. So sensors are used for weather forecasting, including marine operations, before the ban on nuclear tests and studying buried structures, including at sea, all based on measuring signatures.

- Radar Intelligence

The use of radar MASINT complements many methods of conducting reconnaissance data collection, using specialized radar methods to measure the specified characteristics of targets and unintended radiation emitted by the transmitter.

Space marine, air, stationary, and mobile location of MASINT radar sensors can cover any surveillance and monitoring area.

- Materials Intelligence

The study of materials in MASINT includes procedures for collecting and analyzing samples of materials in any aggregate state of proper processing, which is crucial for protection against chemical, biological and radiological interference threats. So the collected materials are analyzed for the presence of an isotopic, chemical or biological trace signature.

- Radio Frequency Intelligence

Radio Frequency Intelligence makes it possible to recognize a radar by its primary signal and side lobes, possibly captured by the primary sensor. Radar intelligence does not focus on finding one specific device but on characterizing the signatures of the entire class of devices based on their intentional and incidental radiation. So the type of devices under study may include radars, communication radios, foreign remote sensors, and false or unintended signals.